Lactobacillus rhamnosus

  • Is a widely used “good bacteria”
  • Produces bio-surfactants that help eradicate harmful bacteria from the GI tract
  • Helps in reliving peanut allergies
  • Aids in improving mood and helps in decreasing stress and depression
  • Prevents respiratory disorders in children
  • Aids in eczema treatment
  • Improves immunity
  • Prevents against bacterial and fungal infections
  • Helpful in the control and prevention of diarrhea

 Lactbacillus rhamnosus is a gram-positive and lactic acid bacteria, and is a potential probiotic. It has shown resistance against acid and bile, and its ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cell layers makes it a good candidate for a probiotic. The genomic studies showed that their pili contain a human mucus binding protein, which binds to the epithelial cells and survives. L. rhamnosus is also used in food industry, in dairy products like yogurt and fermented and pasteurized milk (Kankainen, 2009).

The L. rhamnosus strain GG, which is isolated from the human intestine, is the most studied and used probiotic. Studies have shown that L. rhamnosus enhanced immunity by various mechanisms; in vitro studies of eukaryotic cell lines increased immunity by decreasing the inflammatory cytokines (Peña and Versalovic, 2003; Zhang et al., 2005). Further, they inhibit the adherence of pathogens to the epithelial binding sites by inducing the expression of intestinal mucin gene (Mack et al., 1999), and reduced the effects of in vitro barrier dysfunction caused by inflammatory cytokines (Donato et al., 2010).

It is also very effective against diarrhea in children. In a study, children ranging between 1-36 months of age were given L. rhamnosus supplements, and they showed a decrease in the severity and duration of the illness, compared to the group of children which were not given the  L. rahmnosus supplement (Marteau et al., 2001). In another study, children who were poorly nourished where given doses of L. rhamnosus showed signs of decrease in the severity of diarrhea (Goldin and Gorbach, 2008).

L. rhamnosus supplements are effective against fighting the antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). This diarrhea occurs after using the antibiotic, which resulted in a microbial imbalance. Studies showed that groups of children and adults who had taken antibiotics to fight against microbial infections resulted in AAD and then took a L. rhamnosus supplement showed a decrease in the severity and duration of AAD (Marteau et al., 2001).

L. rhamnosus showed effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. A group of infants and young children who took L. rhamnosus showed an increase in CD19+ CD27+ B cells (these are immune memory cells that link the innate and adaptive immune systems). The increase of CD19+ CD27+ B cells showed an increase in immunity response of the individuals against atopic dermatitis. They also showed a decrease in IgA and IgM secreting cells, indicating the constant simulation of gut intraluminar antigens (Nermes et al., 2011).

L. rhamnosus is also used as an anti-allergen; 80% of children taking this supplement showed a decrease in peanut allergies (Scott and Sophie, 2015). A study using mice as test subjects demonstrated lowered anxiety when they were given a supplement of L. rhamnosus (Saey, 2011). L. rhamnosus showed significant weight loss in women who are dieting. Another research study discovered that the group of bacteria in the gut of thin people is different than those in obese people. When women were given doses of L. rhamnosus, they showed weight loss twice as compared to women who were not given supplement of L. rhamnosus. This decrease in weight loss was observed in women; men did not exhibit any weight decrease (Sanchez et al., 2014).

L. rhamnosus strains are also found in vaginal region. These strains protect the urogenital tract of women from pathogens by inhibiting their adhesion by the excretion of bio-surfactants. A study demonstrated the effectiveness of L. rhamnosus in reducing intestinal permeability of those with irritable bowel syndrome (Reid and Bruce, 2001). The study of the binding mechanism of L. rhamnosus resulted in a very interesting fact: it competes with pathogens in binding to the epithelial cells to inhibit the adhesion and growth of pathogens. They also help in the improvement of the digestive system by inducing the proliferation of the epithelial cells and increasing the protective mucus secretion (Mack 1999, 2003; Silva, 1987). These mechanisms help in antibiotic side effects by enhancing the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier, the effects of dietary changes, and inhibiting the growth of pathogens (Doron et al., 2005).

References

Kankainen, M., Paulin, L., Tynkkynen, S., von Ossowski, I., Reunanen, J., Partanen, P., … de Vos, W. M. (2009). Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(40), 17193–17198.

Peña, J. A., & Versalovic, J. (2003). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decreases TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages by a contact-independent mechanism. Cellular Microbiology.

Zhang, L., Li, N., Caicedo, R., & Neu, J. (2005). Alive and dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-8 production in Caco-2 cells. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(7), 1752–1756.

Mack, D. R., Michail, S., Wei, S., McDougall, L., & Hollingsworth, M. A. (1999). Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. Am J Physiol, 276(4), 941–950.

Donato, K,A., Gareau, M.G., Wang, Y,J., Sherman, P.M. (2010) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG attenuates interferon-{gamma} and tumour necrosis factor-alphainduced barrier dysfunction and pro-inflammatory signalling. Microbiology, 156:3288-3297.

Goldin, B. R., & Gorbach, S. L. (2008). Clinical indications for Probiotics: An overview. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46 (supple, S96–S100.

Nermes, M., Kantele, J. M., Atosuo, T. J., Salminen, S., & Isolauri, E. (2011). Interaction of orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG with skin and gut microbiota and humoral immunity in infants with atopic dermatitis. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 41(3), 370–377.

Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, Ngom-Bru C, Berger B, Philippe L, Ammon-Zuffrey C,Leone P, Chevrier G, St-Amand E, Marette A, Doré J, Tremblay A (2014). “Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women”British Journal of Nutrition.111(8): 1507–1519.

Mack, D. R., Ahrne, S., Hyde, L., Wei, S., & Hollingsworth, M. a. (2003). Extracellular MUC3 mucin secretion follows adherence of Lactobacillus strains to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Gut, 52(6), 827–833.

Silva, M., Jacobus, N. V., Deneke, C., & Gorbach, S. L. (1987). Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 31(8), 1231–1233.

Marteau, P. R., De Vrese, M., Cellier, C. J., & Schrezenmeir, J. (2001). Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics. In American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. 73).

To all Nutrivee customers. Nutrivee has now been rebranded to 'Vibranelle'. PLEASE NOTE: Our Advanced Prebiotic is still the exact same formula from the same manufacturer. Our Advanced Probiotic formula has changed and is now manufactured by the same manufacturer as our Advanced Prebiotic. Please purchase through our Amazon store here http://amazon.com/shops/vibranelle

Dr Keri Layton

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